IP and Tourism: Trademark Protection, Licensing

This guide offers a comprehensive overview of trademark protection and licensing in the tourism industry, covering legal frameworks, best practices, and key considerations for businesses to safeguard their brand identity and expand their market reach.
IP and Tourism: Trademark Protection, Licensing
Photo by Ali Nuredini / Unsplash


Intellectual Property (IP) plays a crucial role in the tourism industry. Trademarks, in particular, are vital for branding and protecting the identity of tourism-related businesses. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of trademark protection and licensing within the tourism sector, focusing on the legal frameworks, best practices, and key considerations for businesses.

Understanding Trademarks

Definition of Trademarks

A trademark is a symbol, word, or phrase legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product. Trademarks distinguish goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises.

Importance of Trademarks in Tourism

In the tourism industry, trademarks are essential for: - Brand Recognition: Trademarks help tourists identify and differentiate between various services and products. - Consumer Trust: A registered trademark assures tourists of the quality and authenticity of the services or products. - Legal Protection: Trademarks provide legal protection against unauthorized use or imitation.

International Agreements

The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property

The Paris Convention, established in 1883, is one of the oldest international treaties concerning IP. It provides a framework for the protection of industrial property, including trademarks, across member countries.

The Madrid System

The Madrid System, administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), allows trademark owners to seek protection in multiple countries through a single application.

The Nice Agreement

The Nice Agreement establishes a classification system for goods and services for the registration of marks. This system is used by many countries to categorize trademarks.

National Laws

United States

In the United States, trademark protection is governed by the Lanham Act. The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is responsible for trademark registration and enforcement.

European Union

The European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) manages the registration of European Union trademarks (EUTMs), which provide protection across all EU member states.

Other Jurisdictions

Each country has its own trademark laws and registration processes. It is essential for businesses to understand the specific requirements and procedures in each jurisdiction where they seek protection.

Trademark Registration Process

Steps to Register a Trademark

  1. Conduct a Trademark Search: Before applying, conduct a search to ensure the trademark is not already in use.
  2. File an Application: Submit an application to the relevant trademark office, providing details about the mark and the goods or services it will cover.
  3. Examination: The trademark office examines the application to ensure it meets all legal requirements.
  4. Publication: The application is published for opposition, allowing third parties to challenge the registration.
  5. Registration: If no opposition is filed, or if opposition is resolved in favor of the applicant, the trademark is registered.

Required Documentation

  • Application Form: Completed application form with details about the applicant and the trademark.
  • Specimen: A specimen showing the trademark as used in commerce.
  • Fee: Payment of the required application fee.

Duration and Renewal

Trademarks are typically registered for ten years and can be renewed indefinitely, provided renewal fees are paid and the mark continues to be used in commerce.

Trademark Licensing

Definition and Importance

Trademark licensing allows the trademark owner (licensor) to grant permission to another party (licensee) to use the trademark under specified conditions. Licensing is crucial in the tourism industry for expanding brand reach and generating revenue.

Types of Licensing Agreements

  1. Exclusive License: The licensee has exclusive rights to use the trademark, and even the licensor cannot use it.
  2. Non-Exclusive License: The licensor can grant the same rights to multiple licensees.
  3. Sublicense: The licensee can grant sublicenses to third parties.

Key Elements of a Licensing Agreement

  • Scope of License: Defines the geographical area, duration, and specific uses of the trademark.
  • Quality Control: Ensures the licensee maintains the quality standards associated with the trademark.
  • Royalties and Fees: Specifies the payment terms, including royalties and other fees.
  • Termination Clause: Outlines the conditions under which the agreement can be terminated.
  • Compliance with Local Laws: Ensure the licensing agreement complies with the trademark laws of the relevant jurisdictions.
  • Antitrust Issues: Avoid clauses that could be considered anti-competitive or violate antitrust laws.
  • Dispute Resolution: Include provisions for resolving disputes, such as arbitration or mediation.

Enforcement of Trademark Rights

Monitoring and Policing

Trademark owners must actively monitor the market to detect unauthorized use of their marks. This can involve: - Market Surveys: Regularly surveying the market for potential infringements. - Online Monitoring: Using online tools to track the use of trademarks on the internet.

Cease and Desist Letters

A cease and desist letter is often the first step in addressing trademark infringement. It notifies the infringer of the violation and demands that they stop using the trademark.


If the infringer does not comply with the cease and desist letter, the trademark owner may file a lawsuit. Legal remedies can include: - Injunctions: Court orders to stop the infringing activity. - Damages: Monetary compensation for the harm caused by the infringement. - Seizure of Goods: Confiscation of counterfeit or infringing goods.

Border Measures

Customs authorities can play a crucial role in preventing the importation of counterfeit goods. Trademark owners can record their trademarks with customs agencies to enable the seizure of infringing goods at the border.

Case Studies

Case Study 1: Disney's Trademark Protection

Disney is a prime example of a company that vigorously protects its trademarks. Disney's characters and logos are registered trademarks, and the company actively monitors and enforces its rights globally.

Case Study 2: Hilton Hotels Licensing Strategy

Hilton Hotels uses trademark licensing to expand its brand presence worldwide. By licensing its trademarks to franchisees, Hilton ensures consistent quality and brand recognition across its hotels.

Challenges and Best Practices

Challenges in Trademark Protection

  • Global Enforcement: Enforcing trademark rights across multiple jurisdictions can be complex and costly.
  • Counterfeiting: The tourism industry is particularly vulnerable to counterfeit goods, which can harm brand reputation.
  • Cultural Differences: Different countries have varying perceptions of trademarks and branding, which can affect enforcement.

Best Practices

  1. Conduct Comprehensive Searches: Before registering a trademark, conduct thorough searches to avoid conflicts.
  2. Register in Key Markets: Ensure trademarks are registered in all key markets where the business operates.
  3. Monitor and Enforce Rights: Actively monitor the market and enforce trademark rights to prevent infringement.
  4. Educate Employees and Partners: Ensure that employees and business partners understand the importance of trademark protection and adhere to brand guidelines.


Trademark protection and licensing are critical components of the tourism industry. By understanding the legal frameworks, registration processes, and best practices, businesses can effectively protect their trademarks and leverage them for growth. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of the key considerations and steps involved in trademark protection and licensing, helping businesses navigate the complexities of IP in the tourism sector.


  1. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) - Intellectual Property Rights Protection
  2. Lanham Act - USPTO
  3. European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO)
  4. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) - Madrid System
  5. Nice Agreement - USPTO

By following the guidelines and leveraging the resources provided, businesses in the tourism industry can ensure robust trademark protection and effective licensing strategies.

About the author
Von Wooding, Esq.

Von Wooding, Esq.

Lawyer and Founder

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