Education Law: School Funding, Curriculum Standards, Students' Rights

This comprehensive guide explores key aspects of education law, including school funding, curriculum standards, and students' rights, providing detailed information and official resources to help understand the legal framework governing education.


Education law encompasses a wide range of legal issues related to the provision of education. This guide will focus on three critical areas: school funding, curriculum standards, and students' rights. Each section will provide detailed information on the relevant laws, regulations, and policies, with references to official sources.

School Funding


School funding is a crucial aspect of education law, as it determines the resources available to schools and directly impacts the quality of education. Funding can come from federal, state, and local sources, and the distribution of these funds is often a contentious issue.

Federal Funding

Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is a significant federal law that governs K-12 education policy. ESSA replaced the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and aims to provide all students with a fair, equitable, and high-quality education. ESSA includes provisions for funding, accountability, and support for schools.

Title I Funding

Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) provides financial assistance to local educational agencies (LEAs) and schools with high numbers or high percentages of children from low-income families. The goal is to ensure that all children meet challenging state academic standards.

State Funding

State Education Budgets

Each state has its own system for funding public education, typically involving a combination of state and local taxes. State education budgets are often a significant part of the overall state budget and can vary widely from state to state.

Example: California

In California, the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) is the primary mechanism for distributing state funds to schools. The LCFF aims to provide more resources to schools with higher needs, such as those with higher percentages of low-income students, English learners, and foster youth.

Local Funding

Property Taxes

Local funding for schools often comes from property taxes. This can lead to disparities in funding between wealthy and less affluent areas, as property values and tax revenues can vary significantly.

School Funding Litigation

Many states have faced legal challenges regarding the equity and adequacy of their school funding systems. Courts have often been called upon to determine whether state funding formulas meet constitutional requirements for providing an adequate education.

Example: Texas

In Texas, the school finance system has been the subject of numerous lawsuits. The Texas Education Code Chapter 29 outlines various educational programs and funding mechanisms.

Curriculum Standards


Curriculum standards define what students are expected to learn at each grade level. These standards are typically set by state education agencies and can vary widely from state to state.

Federal Influence

Common Core State Standards

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative was a state-led effort to establish consistent and clear education standards for English language arts and mathematics. While not a federal mandate, the CCSS have been adopted by many states.

State Standards

Example: Michigan

The Michigan Department of Education sets academic standards for various subjects, including English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. These standards outline the knowledge and skills students are expected to acquire at each grade level.

Curriculum Development and Approval

State Boards of Education

State boards of education are typically responsible for developing and approving curriculum standards. These boards often work with educators, experts, and the public to ensure that the standards are rigorous and relevant.

Senate Bill 48 (California)

Senate Bill 48, also known as the FAIR Education Act, requires California schools to include the contributions of LGBTQ+ individuals and people with disabilities in social studies curricula. This law aims to promote inclusivity and prevent discrimination.

Students' Rights


Students' rights encompass a wide range of legal protections and entitlements, including the right to a free and appropriate public education, freedom from discrimination, and privacy rights.

Right to Education

Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), students with disabilities are entitled to a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). This means that schools must provide special education and related services tailored to the individual needs of each student with a disability.

Anti-Discrimination Protections

Title IX

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination based on sex in any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. This includes protections against sexual harassment and assault.

Section 504

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination based on disability in programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. This includes public schools and ensures that students with disabilities have equal access to education.

Privacy Rights

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

FERPA is a federal law that protects the privacy of student education records. It gives parents certain rights regarding their children's education records, which transfer to the student when they turn 18 or attend a school beyond the high school level.

Students' Bill of Rights

Example: New York City

The New York City Department of Education has established a Student Bill of Rights, which outlines the rights and responsibilities of students in the city's public schools. This includes the right to a safe and supportive learning environment, freedom from discrimination, and access to educational resources.

Parental Rights

Parents' Bill of Rights

Several states have enacted Parents' Bills of Rights, which outline the rights of parents in the education of their children. These rights often include access to educational records, the right to participate in school activities, and the right to be informed about their child's progress.


Education law is a complex and multifaceted area that encompasses school funding, curriculum standards, and students' rights. Understanding the legal framework and the various protections and entitlements available to students is essential for ensuring that all children receive a high-quality education. This guide provides an overview of the key legal issues and resources related to education law, with references to official sources for further information.

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Von Wooding

Von Wooding

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