Chapter 12 Bankruptcy: Family Farmer Bankruptcy, Fisherman Bankruptcy

This legal guide delves into Chapter 12 bankruptcy, designed to help family farmers and fishermen restructure debts, covering its history, eligibility, filing process, and the benefits and drawbacks of this specialized bankruptcy option.

Chapter 12 bankruptcy is a specialized form of bankruptcy designed to help family farmers and fishermen restructure their debts and continue their operations. This legal guide provides an in-depth look at Chapter 12 bankruptcy, including its history, eligibility requirements, filing process, and the benefits and drawbacks of this type of bankruptcy.


Chapter 12 bankruptcy was created to address the unique financial challenges faced by family farmers and fishermen. Unlike other types of bankruptcy, Chapter 12 is tailored specifically to the needs of these groups, providing them with a more flexible and less costly option for debt relief.

History of Chapter 12 Bankruptcy

Legislative Background

Chapter 12 was added to the Bankruptcy Code in 1986 as part of the Bankruptcy Judges, United States Trustees, and Family Farmer Bankruptcy Act of 1986. This legislation was enacted in response to the agricultural crisis of the 1980s, which saw many family farmers struggling with insurmountable debt.

Amendments and Revisions

Since its inception, Chapter 12 has undergone several amendments to improve its effectiveness and expand its applicability. Notably, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 made Chapter 12 a permanent part of the Bankruptcy Code and introduced several changes to enhance its utility for family farmers and fishermen.

Eligibility Requirements

Definition of Family Farmer and Fisherman

To qualify for Chapter 12 bankruptcy, a debtor must meet the definition of a "family farmer" or "family fisherman" as outlined in the Bankruptcy Code.

Family Farmer

A family farmer is defined as an individual, individual and spouse, or corporation or partnership engaged in a farming operation. The debtor must meet the following criteria:

  • The total debts must not exceed $10,000,000.
  • At least 50% of the debtor's debts (excluding the home mortgage) must be related to the farming operation.
  • More than 50% of the debtor's gross income for the preceding tax year (or for each of the second and third preceding tax years) must come from the farming operation.

Family Fisherman

A family fisherman is defined similarly, with specific criteria tailored to fishing operations:

  • The total debts must not exceed $2,044,225.
  • At least 80% of the debtor's debts (excluding the home mortgage) must be related to the commercial fishing operation.
  • More than 50% of the debtor's gross income for the preceding tax year (or for each of the second and third preceding tax years) must come from the commercial fishing operation.

Documentation and Proof

Debtors must provide documentation to prove their eligibility, including tax returns, financial statements, and other relevant records. This documentation is crucial for demonstrating that the debtor meets the income and debt thresholds specified in the Bankruptcy Code.

Filing Process

Initial Steps

The filing process for Chapter 12 bankruptcy involves several key steps:

  1. Credit Counseling: Debtors must complete a credit counseling course from an approved agency within 180 days before filing.
  2. Petition Filing: Debtors must file a petition with the bankruptcy court, along with schedules of assets and liabilities, income and expenses, and a statement of financial affairs.
  3. Automatic Stay: Upon filing, an automatic stay goes into effect, halting most collection actions against the debtor.

Plan of Reorganization

A central component of Chapter 12 bankruptcy is the plan of reorganization, which outlines how the debtor intends to repay creditors over a period of three to five years.

Plan Requirements

The plan must meet several requirements:

  • Feasibility: The plan must be feasible, meaning the debtor has a reasonable likelihood of success in making the proposed payments.
  • Best Interests of Creditors: The plan must be in the best interests of creditors, providing them with at least as much as they would receive in a Chapter 7 liquidation.
  • Disposable Income: The plan must commit all of the debtor's disposable income to the repayment plan for the duration of the plan.

Confirmation Process

The bankruptcy court must confirm the plan before it can take effect. This involves a hearing where creditors can object to the plan, and the court will evaluate whether the plan meets the necessary requirements.

Benefits of Chapter 12 Bankruptcy


Chapter 12 offers greater flexibility compared to other types of bankruptcy. Debtors can propose a repayment plan that suits their unique financial circumstances, including seasonal income fluctuations common in farming and fishing operations.

Lower Costs

Chapter 12 is generally less costly than Chapter 11, making it a more accessible option for family farmers and fishermen. The streamlined process and reduced administrative burden help minimize expenses.

Retention of Assets

One of the primary benefits of Chapter 12 is the ability to retain essential assets, such as farmland and fishing equipment. This allows debtors to continue their operations and generate income to repay their debts.

Drawbacks of Chapter 12 Bankruptcy

Eligibility Restrictions

The strict eligibility criteria for Chapter 12 can be a significant drawback. Debtors must meet specific income and debt thresholds, which may exclude some farmers and fishermen from qualifying.

Length of Repayment Plan

The three to five-year repayment plan can be a lengthy commitment, requiring disciplined financial management and consistent income generation. This can be challenging for debtors facing ongoing financial difficulties.

Impact on Credit

Like other types of bankruptcy, Chapter 12 can have a negative impact on the debtor's credit score. This can make it more difficult to obtain financing in the future, although the impact may be less severe than with Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy.

Automatic Stay

The automatic stay is a critical provision in Chapter 12 bankruptcy. It halts most collection actions, including foreclosure, repossession, and wage garnishment, providing debtors with temporary relief from creditor actions.

Discharge of Debts

Upon successful completion of the repayment plan, the debtor may receive a discharge of remaining eligible debts. This discharge releases the debtor from personal liability for the discharged debts, providing a fresh financial start.

Cramdown Provision

Chapter 12 allows for the "cramdown" of certain secured debts, meaning the debtor can reduce the principal balance of the debt to the current value of the collateral. This can be particularly beneficial for debtors with underwater loans on farming or fishing equipment.

Case Studies

Case Study 1: Family Farmer

In this case study, we examine a family farmer who successfully filed for Chapter 12 bankruptcy. The farmer faced significant debt due to a combination of poor crop yields and falling commodity prices. By filing for Chapter 12, the farmer was able to restructure their debts, retain their farmland, and continue their farming operation.

Case Study 2: Family Fisherman

This case study explores the experience of a family fisherman who utilized Chapter 12 bankruptcy to address overwhelming debt. The fisherman faced financial difficulties due to declining fish stocks and increased regulatory costs. Through Chapter 12, the fisherman was able to reorganize their debts, retain their fishing vessel, and maintain their livelihood.


Chapter 12 bankruptcy provides a vital lifeline for family farmers and fishermen facing financial distress. By offering a tailored and flexible approach to debt relief, Chapter 12 helps these essential industries continue their operations and contribute to the economy. While there are challenges and drawbacks to consider, the benefits of Chapter 12 make it a valuable option for eligible debtors.


  1. United States Courts - Chapter 12 Bankruptcy Basics
  2. U.S. Code - Chapter 12
  3. IRS - Other Types of Bankruptcy – Chapters 9, 12, & 15
  4. Department of Justice - Overview Of Bankruptcy Chapters
  5. USDA - Farm Bankruptcies in the United States

By understanding the intricacies of Chapter 12 bankruptcy, family farmers and fishermen can make informed decisions about their financial futures and explore the potential for a fresh start through this specialized form of bankruptcy.

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Von Wooding

Von Wooding

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